Some Information on Water Injection
I have done a lot of research on the effects of water injection on a forced induction engine, and have been able to come to the conclusion that it is in my opinion, one of the best modifications for a turbo car with increased boost levels. All to many modifications performed in the search for more power, can lead to stressful situations on the engine, and of these raising boost pressure is the most common and easiest way to increase engine output. However, when the boost pressure is raised, so is the heat of the charge air and the in cylinder pressure, which is a bad combination. To combat this more fuel must be added, but when you reach a point where not even a rich mixture of 12/1 is sufficient to stop detonation, you will be losing power by the addition of more fuel. This is where water injection really pays off, not only in it's ability to safely allow boost increases, but to actually benefit the engine and turbo. The reason for this is that water possesses a very high amount of latent heat, which makes it ideal for cooling the combustion process. Water will improve the knock resistance of an engine, while also cooling the exhaust gases, thus allowing higher boost pressures, while at the same time reducing thermal stress on the turbine section. Water will also help prevent the build up of carbon deposits, and can protect the valves and valve seats from getting burnt, pitted or distorted.
If you are interested in water injection, but have heard some negative information on it, then you need to click here, and get the true story.
Results Of The Water Injection
It works. Plain and simple, it works. My car was the perfect challenge for water injection. In Barbados the temperatures are almost always very high, there is no availability of high octane fuel, plenty of stop and start driving, and my desire to run high boost. Unfortunately because there are no four wheel drive dynos here, I am unable to show results by this, but in this case dyno results definitely aren't needed. The car could sustain 0.8 bar of boost consistently, but could only run for a short period at anything over that before there was a loss of power. After adding the water injection kit, the car can now run at 1.0 bar consistently. I have already carried it as high as 1.1 bar without a problem. ERL's System2 has the added benifit of being able to map in a 3D mode, which makes it ideal for people who like to change their boost pressures often.
My Opinion of ERL
On a scale of 1 to 10, I would give ERL an 11. Being a person who likes to learn about a product before he buys it, I have in the past contacted many of the aftermarket performance parts companies. A lot of them are fairly good with their replies, although most answers don't seem to come the next day, but some of them are not to helpful at all. Then there are the ones who never reply, or reply months later. ERL's responses are very fast. During the installation I e-mailed them quite a few times with questions, and their answers never took longer than 24 hours, most times less, and the replies where always friendly and informative.
Installation Of ERL System2 (race version) Water Injection Kit
This advise is given freely and is based on what I did. What you choose to do to your car is entirly up to you, and whether you choose to use the installation information given below is also up to you.
Also remember that while this a guide to the installation, the manual that comes with the kit is very thorough, and ERL is always willing to help should you have a question. This is meant to help with the installation on a 1990 Toyota Celica GT-Four (ST185), but I still highly recommend that you read the manual thoroughly.
If you are not technical and don't understand most of this, a tuning shop should be able to do this job easily. To make things easier for them, you can print this, and the diagram, and carry it for them to see.
List of parts in the kit
MF2 (ER627 controller)
Cable loom (blue hood)
Adjustable Pressure Switch
Water Injection Manifold Assembly
Water jets (3 supplied 0.7mm, 0.8mm, 0.9mm)
Stainless Water Filter
1.5m natural nylon pipe
LED Warning Light
2 fuses (one for controller, one for pump)
Assortment of fasteners in bag
Taping tool for making the threads for the water jet
A list of Tools you will need
Drill with various size bits (9/32 bit for water
Various sizes of spanners (a socket set makes life easier)
Philips head screw driver
A multimeter or volt meter (I don't like test lights)
A sharp cutting tool (like an exacto knife)
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The manual gives you a choice of three locations for the water jet and describes the reason for each location. I choose "C", right at the exit point of the intercooler, but because of the location of the intercooler on our cars, it would be like a combination of "C" and "A". I marked a spot on the intercooler were I wanted to put the water jet (make sure the rubber intercooler seal on the hood will not hit the jet when you close the hood). The jet should be mounted at about 45o to the vertical, pointing down. I put mine at 2 o'clock. See diagram 1 for mounting location. Carry the intercooler to a machine shop and have them build up the area where you are going to put the water jet. Build it up enough so that the water jet protrudes just a little past the inside of the intercooler. The reason for this is that the intercooler is made of soft aluminum and is not thick enough for the threads to last. Even after building it up, it would be wise not to remove the jet to often. NOw gently file the area flat that you have had built up. The reason for filing it flat, is so the 'O' ring will seat properly. Before drilling the hole, push some cloth up into the intercooler to stop the fillings from getting in, a little grease on the drill bit helps to keep the fine filings on the bit. Before drilling use a punch (or a small nail) and gently give it a few taps with a hammer to create a slight nick (if you hit to hard, you will undo the work you just did flattening the spot), so the drill bit won't slide when you go to drill. Now drill the hole with a drill bit just under the size of the 9/32 bit. Next drill out the hole you have made with the 9/32 bit, but go slow and steady and don't let the drill wobble. Now you are ready to tap the threads. Using the taping bit supplied and a tapping tool to hold it (I used a spanner, but make sure you have a steady hand and DON'T jiggle back and forth if you use a spanner) start to screw the taping bit into the hole you just drilled, go slow and turn a few times, then a little back. Keep doing this a little while and then stop and check if the jet is screwing in easily. NEVER force the jet, if it isn't screwing in easily, you haven't tapped enough, or you haven't got it at the right angle, try jiggling it a bit while turning it, But I repeat, NEVER force it. Next gently file the surface after you finished tapping it, and then sand it a little. If the area has sharp edges it may damage the 'O' ring. Screw the jet in, and gently tighten it down, do not tighten it down with all your might, it should just be snug and you should not be able to unsrew it by hand. Check that the 'O' ring is not bulging out on one side, if it is, remove the jet and file down the high spot a little bit (where the 'O' ring was bulging), remember, the 'O' ring is thin and it is a threaded hole, so will not have to file very much. Give the area a quick brush with the sand paper, and try fitting the jet again. Once the jet is fitted you will have to cut a small section out of the rubber hose that the intercooler fits into. See Diagram 2. After installation of the jet is complete you will have to drill a hole in the intercooloer protector in order for the hose to be attached to the jet. If you know how to remove your intercooler skip the last paragraph, if not read it.
* Update: Before you do the above you will need to carry the intercooler to a machine shop and have them build up the area where you are going to put the water jet. Build it up enough so that the water jet protrudes just a little past the inside of the intercooler. The reason for this is that the intercooler is made of soft aluminum and is not thick enough for the threads to last. Even after building it up, it would be wise not to remove the jet to often (see diagram 1).
To remove the intercooler, first remove the plastic clips that hold the intercooler cool air inlet (the black rubber thing on the side of the intercooler), next remove the intercooler protector, by unscrewing the three bolts (10mm) holding it on. Now you can remove the rest of the clips holding the cool air inlet and remove this. Remove the two (12mm) bolts on either side of the intercooler that hold it on. Slacken off the two hose clamps (10mm) on the hose at the entry pipe of the intercooler, and slacken off the clamp (10mm) on the rubber hose attachment at the exit pipe of the intercooler. Now slide the hose attahced to the entry pipe down a little and holding the entry pipe pull the intercooler until it comes out of the hose. It will be fairly tight. Installation is the opposite of removal.
The manifold assembly should be placed as close to the jet as possible, however on my car space is very tight and I ended up mounting both the manifold and pump together on a bracket that I made, in the front right hand side of the engine compartment, (where the ABS system would be located on a car with this feature). The manifold assembly is mounted using two supplied bolts that bolt into it. See pictures.
The pump is held in place buy four bolts and nuts that are supplied. As stated above, I located it next to the manifold assembly in the front right hand side of the engine compartment.
A tank is not supplied with the kit, so for a tank I used the windshield washer bottle, which holds about 4 litres. To get at the tank you have to remove the right front wheel and the fender lining, it would be too long to describe the fender lining process, but while it is time consuming, it is not very difficult. For your own safety DO NOT work with just the car's jack supporting the vehicle, use a jack stand. After removing the lining, remove the windshield washer tank. To do this first remove the two hoses on the motor, water will start to come out (at least it did on mine), so you might want a bucket handy. Remove the connector from the motor. There is a metal bar (fender stay) that runs from the bottom of the fender to the chassis, held in by two bolts (10mm), remove this. You will see two bolts that hold on the washer tank (10mm), remove these. There is a nut (10mm) that must be removed as well, this is at the other side of the washer bottle (the side towards the front of the car). Now simply pull the washer tank down and out. Hint: Open the cap to make removal easier. Rinse out the tank thoroughly, don't use detergent, just rinse it with water (avoid getting to much water on the motor). I just filled mine half way with water and shook it up good, then emptied it, I repeated this several times.
Now you are ready to install the pick up line. To do this I made a hole in the top of the tank and feed it down, the point where I made the hole was close to the side of the tank that would be nearest the fender. I wanted to ensure that the pickup line would go as close to the lowest part of the tank without actually touching it. To accomplish this you will need a long thin piece of plastic, just longer than the tank, not including the neck,(do not use metal, plastic doesn't rust). Using tie wraps (again made of plastic), fasten the nylon pipe supplied with the kit to the straight piece of plastic, using the tie wraps, about four of them, evenly spaced, letting the long piece of plastic extend a little past the nylon pipe, this is important. By doing this you ensure that the nylon pipe will not curve and end half way up the tank and that the bottom of the nylon hose will not seal on the bottom of the tank and prevent the water from being sucked by the pump. At this stage you are ready to cut the hole in the top of the tank. To do this I used an exacto knife and cut three sides of a square, then I pushed this portion down into the tank. Now use the exacto knife to cut a curve out off the end opposite the side of the square you didn't cut, while holding the tank upside down. Next use a small screwdriver or similiar object and pull the piece you pushed down, up, and break it off. You know have a hole and nothing has gone in the tank. By the way, in case your wondering why not just let it fall in and then turn the tank upside down, it's because the tank is designed with ribs in it that stop the water from sloshing all about, at least mine is. Feed the nylon line/plastic piece down into the tank until the plastic piece touches the bottom. Now carefully cut the long piece of plastic until it protrudes about a 1/2 inch above the hole, be VERY careful NOT to cut the nylon pipe. This must now be sealed in place. I used clear silicone, allowing it to cure over night, and then applied a second application to make sure it was sealed and the plastic piece was held in place.
You are now ready to install the tank back into the car, but you will have to find a small hole to feed the nylon through into the engine bay. On my car there was already a small hole near the tank. The nylon is very good quality and seems very strong, but I still used a piece of vacuum hose to protect it from being cut by the metal of the hole. Simply cut about an inch of vacuum hose, put a slice in it so you can spread it open, and fit around the nylon pipe where it enters the engine bay. Now secure the tank with the two bolts and one nut you removed. Replace the fender stay, and the fender lining.
I mounted the MF2 near the car's ECU, located behind the center console. Mounting of the MF2 is very straight forward, so I won't go into too much detail here. It comes with two brackets that attach to the unit.
LED (Yellow Fault Light)
The LED was mounted in the stereo panel. To accomplish this, simply remove the panel. Drill a hole for the LED to fit through and put it in and tighten the nut behind. See pictures.
The wiring is very well explained in the manual, so there is no need to go into here, plus ERL is excellent with customer service, and if you are unsure of anything just e-mail them.
E.Sussex, BN10 8HF
44 1273 581007, Fax: 44 1273 581555.
Web Site: http:www.aquamist.co.uk/
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Please note that I am not a mechanic by trade, and that any information offered on this web page is free and without guarantee. Should you choose to perform any of the procedures listed on this site, you will be doing so of your own free will, and I will not be held responsible or liable for any damages that might occur from using information obtained here.